Dr Bala Krishnamurthy

Research Unit



Senior Research Officer, Immunology and Diabetes Unit
Endocrinologist: St Vincent's Hospital and Werribee Mercy Hospitals, Melbourne

Professional Experience

1993                    MBBS, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore, India
1998                    MD (Internal Medicine), SN Medical College, Agra, India.
2002                    DM (Endocrinology), Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of                                  Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
2010                    FRACP, Australia


2004-2006      Postdoctoral Fellowship, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
2005               Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Travel Award
2008-2013      Career Development Award, Juvenile Diabetes Research                                          Foundation
2015-2016       Mentored clinical research fellowship, Juvenile Diabetes                                          Research  Foundation

Research Interests

Our Unit's goal is to direct pre-clinical and clinical translational research projects that build on basic discoveries. We work on the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We identified the primary role of autoimmune recognition of proinsulin in type 1 diabetes and we are developing antigen-specific therapies to prevent diabetes. We are investigating immunopathogenesis of check point inhibitor induced autoimmunity. We also work on the development of immunosuppression free adrenal cell transplantation for treatment for adrenal insufficiency.

Selected Publications

  1. Krishnamurthy B, Dudek NL, McKenzie MD, Purcell AW, Brooks AG, Gellert S, Colman PG, Harrison LC, Lew AM, Thomas HE, Kay TW (2006). Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP. J Clin Invest 116(12):3258-65.
  2. Jenkins AJ, Krishnamurthy B, Best JD, Cameron FJ, Colman PG, Farish S, Hamblin PS, O'Connel MA, Rodda C, Rowley K, Teede H, O'Neal DN (2010) Evaluation of an Algorithm to Guide Patients with Type I Diabetes Treated with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) on How to Respond to Real-Time Continuous Glucose Levels- A Randomised Control Trial. Diabetes Care;33(6):1242-8.
  3. Krishnamurthy, B; Chee, J; Jhala, G; Fynch, S; Graham, K. L; Santamaria, P; Morahan, G; Allison, J; Izon, D; Thomas, HE and Kay, TW (2012).  Complete diabetes protection despite delayed thymic tolerance in NOD8.3 TCR transgenic mice due to antigen-induced extrathymic deletion of T cells.  Diabetes  61 (2): 425-35
  4. O'Connell PJ, Holmes-Walker DJ, Goodman D, Hawthorne WJ, Loudovaris T, Gunton  JE, Thomas HE, Grey ST, Drogemuller CJ, Ward GM, Torpy DJ, Coates PT, Kay TW (2013) Australian Islet Transplant Consortium. Multicenter Australian trial of islet transplantation: improving accessibility and outcomes. Am J Transplant. Jul;13(7):1850-8
  5. Chee J, Ko HJ, Skowera A, Jhala G, Catterall T, Graham KL, Sutherland RM, Thomas HE, Lew AM, Peakman M, Kay TW, Krishnamurthy B (2014). Effector-memory T cells develop in islets and report islet pathology in type 1 diabetes. J Immunol;192(2):572-80.
  6. Pathiraja V, Kuehlich JP, Campbell PD, Krishnamurthy B, Loudovaris T, Coates PT, Brodnicki TC, O'Connell PJ, Kedzierska K, Rodda C, Bergman P, Hill E, Purcell AW, Dudek NL, Thomas HE, Kay TW, Mannering SI. Proinsulin-specific, HLA-DQ8, and  HLA-DQ8-transdimer-restricted CD4+ T cells infiltrate islets in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes.;64(1):172-82.
  7. Jhala G, Chee J, Trivedi P, Selck C, Gurzov E, Graham KL, Thomas HE, Kay TWH, Krishnamurthy B. Tolerance to proinsulin in the perinatal period is sufficient to prevent diabetes in NOD mice. JCI Insight. 2016;1(10): e86065.
  8. Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J. Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia1, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison & Charles R Mackay. Gut Microbial Metabolites Limit Autoimmune T cell Frequencies and Protect Against Type 1 Diabetes. Nat Immunol. 2017;18(5):552-562.
  9. Galligan A, Xu W, Fourlanos S, Nankervis A, Chiang C, Mant AM, Parente P, Rischin D, Krishnamurthy B, Sandhu S, Colman PG. Diabetes associated with immune checkpoint inhibition: presentation and management challenges. Diabet Med. 2018 Jun 16.
  10. So M, Elso CM, Tresoldi E, Pakusch M, Pathiraja V, Wentworth JM, Harrison LC, Krishnamurthy B, Thomas HE, Rodda C, Cameron FJ, McMahon J, Kay TWH, Mannering SI. ProinsuliC-peptide is an autoantigen in people with type 1 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 16;115(42):10732-10737.